System of National Accounts (SNA) represents the system of interconnected statistical indicators built in the form of a certain set of accounts and tables characterizing the results of economic activity of the country.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is one of the most important indicators of SNA which characterises final results of production activities of economic units - residents. It represents the value of final goods and services produced by these units during the accounting period in prices of final purchasers. It can be computed as the sum of value added of all industries (or institutional sectors) plus net taxes on products (taxes on products less subsidies on products). Gross value added is defined as the difference between the value of produced goods and services (output) and value of goods and services entirely consumed in the production process (intermediate consumption).
GDP can be also defined as the sum of primary incomes payable by resident producers to participants of the production process (both residents and non-residents): compensation of employees, net taxes on production and imports, gross operating surplus and gross mixed income.
GDP by final use represents the sum of final consumption of goods and services, gross fixed capital formation, change in inventories, net acquisition of valuables and net exports of goods and services.
Volume indices of GDP are derived by dividing the value of GDP in the accounting period in prices of the base period by its value in the base period. Commonly the base period is changed every five years. In practice most of the CIS countries change the base period every year because of substantial changes which occur in economic structure and prices. Volume indices of GDP in the accounting year as compared with the previous year are computed in this case by dividing the value of GDP in the accounting year in prices of the previous year by the value of GDP in the previous year. When volume indices of GDP are calculated for long periods the method of chain indices is used.
GDP is closely related to other important aggregates of the SNA: gross national income and gross national disposable income.
Calculation of main macroeconomic indicators (gross domestic product, industrial production, agricultural production, retail turnover, market services rendered to population, money income of population) of the CIS countries per capita as percentage of average data for the CIS is carried out in current prices in Russian roubles with the help of official average annual exchange rates of national currencies to rouble established by central (national) banks of the CIS countries using the data on average annual number of resident population. Calculation of external trade turnover is carried out in dollar terms.
Residents are institutional units (legal entities or persons) which have the centre of economic interest on the economic territory of the country, i.e. they can have real estate, engage or intend to engage in economic activity on the territory of the country during long period (not less than one year).
The economic territory of the country is the territory which is administrated by the government of the given country and within which persons, goods and capitals can move freely; it does not include the territorial enclaves of other countries (embassies, military bases, etc.) or international organizations but includes the enclaves of the given country on the territory of other countries.
Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of primary incomes receivable by the residents of the country for their participation in production of GDP of the given country and the countries of the rest of the world. GNI differs from GDP by the amount of primary incomes receivable by residents from the rest of the world less primary incomes payable by the given country to non-residents. GNI was called previously gross national product (GNP).
Gross national disposable income (GNDI) is the sum of primary incomes and current transfers receivable by the residents of the given country. It represents income which the residents dispose for final consumption and saving. GNDI differs from GNI by the amount of current transfers receivable by residents from the rest of the world less current transfers payable by the given country to non-residents .
Compensation of employees represents a remuneration in cash or in kind payable by an employer to an employee for the job performed during the accounting period. It is accounted on an accrual basis and consists of the two following components: i) wages and salaries (before deduction of taxes on income); ii) employers` social contributions.
Taxes on production and imports are compulsory, non-compensated, unrequited payments levied by the government on producing units in connection with the production, sales and imports of goods and services or the use of factors of production. They do not include taxes on profit or other income receivable by enterprises. They consist of taxes on products and other taxes on production.
Taxes on products are taxes payable proportionally to the quantity or value of goods and services produced, sold or imported by residents. They include the following most wide-spread taxes: value added tax (VAT) and value added type taxes, excises, taxes on sales, purchases and so forth, taxes on specific services, taxes on exports and imports, etc.
Other taxes on production are taxes connected with the use of factors of production as well as licence fees and payments for permission to perform some productive activity or other obligatory payments necessary for performance of producing resident units. They may be payable on the land, fixed assets or labour employed in the production process or for the right to exercise certain activities or transactions.
Net taxes are taxes less subsidies.
Subsidies are current non-compensated unrequited payments payable by the government to enterprises in connection with the production, sales and imports of goods and services or the use of the factors of production for pursuing certain economic and social policy. They consist of subsidies on products and other subsidies on production.
Subsidies on products are subsidies payable proportionally to the quantity or value of goods and services produced, sold or imported by residents. They include, for example, regular compensations to enterprises from the state budget for constant losses arising from the fact, that sale price for their output is established lower than average costs of production; subsidies on exports and imports, etc.
Other subsidies on production consist of subsidies payable by the government to enterprises in connection with the use of the factors of production. They include subsidies payable for the employment of particular groups of persons (handicapped, persons who have been unemployed for a long time, etc.), subsidies for the use of other factors of production, for example, to stimulate using certain types of raw materials, energy, etc., and subsidies to reduce environment pollution.
Operating surplus is a part of value added which remains at disposal of producers (corporations) after deducting the compensation of employees and net other taxes on production. Operating surplus can be measured on gross and net basis, i.e. before and after deducting consumption of fixed capital.
Mixed income is a part of value added of unincorporated enterprises owned by household which remains after deducting compensation of employees and net other taxes on production. It includes both remuneration of labour input by members of households and operating surplus of these enterprises. Mixed income can be computed on gross and net basis, i.e. before and after deducting consumption of fixed capital
Consumption of fixed capital represents the decline, during the accounting period, in the current value of the stock of fixed assets as a result of physical deterioration, obsolescence or accidental damage. Fixed capital (fixed assets) represents assets which are the output of production and are used in the process of production repeatedly. Fixed assets refer to buildings, structures, machinery and equipment, vehicles, tools, instruments, draught and productive livestock, perrennial plantations; mineral exploration; computer software; entertainment, literary and artistic originals (films, recordings, manuscripts and so forth) which are used for reproduction.
Final consumption represents the value of goods and services used directly for individual and collective consumption. Final consumption can be considered from two angles.
On one hand, it represents the sum of final consumption expenditure of resident households, the general government and non-profit institutions serving households. For households it includes expenditure on purchases of consumer goods and services financed from their income; for the general government - expenditure of budgetary units rendering individual services to households in the field of health care, social security, culture and art as well as expenditure of budgetary units providing services to society as a whole in the field of the public administration, defence, science and so forth; the same refers to private non-profit institutions serving households which are considered by convention as providing only individual goods and services. Such grouping shows who finances expenditure for final consumption.
On the other hand, final consumption can be determined as actual final consumption of goods and services. For households it includes their expenditure on purchases of consumer goods and services and the value of individual goods and services received by households from the general government and from non-profit institutions serving households as social transfers in kind. For the general government actual final consumption equals to the value of collective services; by convention there is no actual final consumption for non-profit institutions serving households.
Gross national saving is a part of GNDI which is not spent on final consumption of goods and services.
Gross capital formation represents net acquisitions by residents of goods and services produced but not consumed, in the current period. It consists of the following components: gross fixed capital formation, change in inventories, acquisitions less disposals of valuables.
Gross fixed capital formation represents investment in fixed capital (fixed assets) for generation of new income in the future by using them in production. Gross fixed capital formation consists of the following components: i) acquisitions less disposals of new and existing fixed assets; ii) outlays on improvement of non-produced tangible assets (land, subsoil assets, natural forests and other natural resources); iii) transfer costs associated with change of ownership of non-produced assets (natural resources, patents, licenses and so forth).
Changes in inventories refer to change in the value of stocks of materials and supplies, work-in-progress, finished goods and goods for resale. Change in the value of inventories during the accounting period is computed as the difference between the value of inventories at the end and the beginning of the period in average prices of the accounting period to eliminate the effect of change in prices.
Acquisitions less disposals of valuables are the value of acquisitions less dicposals of assets purchased as means of storage of value: precious metals and stones, antiques, objects of art, collections and others.
Net national lending (borrowing) is the difference between of the resources available for financing capital outlays (gross saving plus balance of capital transfers) over the outlays on acquisitions of non-financial assets. At the level of the economy as a whole net lending refers to the amount of resources which the country lent to the rest of the world, net borrowing – the amount of the resources which the rest of the world lent to the given country.
National wealth according to the System of National Accounts concept represents the stock of non-financial and financial assets at the disposal of the residents of the country at the certain moment less liabilities. National wealth can be also defined as the sum of the stock of non-financial assets plus net claims to the rest of the world.
Non-financial assets include produced assets (fixed assets, inventories, valuables) and non-produced assets (land, other natural resources and such intangible assets as patents, licenses, etc.).
Population property (except dwellings and other buildings, livestock and perennial plantations included in the fixed capital, stocks of agricultural goods, young and fattening livestock included in inventories as well as valuables) is not included in the national wealth. However, in the System of National Accounts it is recommended to show separately as a memorandum item the value of household consumer durables. They include passenger cars, electric, radio and electronic appliances (TV-sets, video tape-recorders, personal computers, refrigerators, washing machines, etc.), furniture and so forth.
Only selected elements of the national wealth are shown in the present publication, such as fixed assets and inventories; household consumer durables are given for reference.
Fixed capital (fixed assets) represents a major component of the country¢s national wealth. Fixed assets cover fixed assets owned by enterprises and organizations of all ownership types as well as fixed assets owned by households, which include: dwellings, buildings for production purposes, perennial plants, livestock, agricultural machines and tools.
Fixed assets are valued at historic and replacement cost (gross and net). The historic cost is the value of fixed assets at prices at the time of acquisition, installation or putting into operation. The replacement cost is the value of fixed assets at current market prices. Gross value is computed before deduction of accumulated amount of wear and tear. Net value is computed by deducting accumulated amount of wear and tear from gross value (as of the beginning and the end of the year).
Budget is a form of formation and expenditure of monetary funds designed for financing tasks and functions of the state and local authorities.
Consolidated (state) budget is the total of the budgets of all levels: republican (federal) and territorial, including local budgets.
Consolidated budget revenue – includes the revenue of the federal budget, of the budgets of the governments of the regions and of the local authorities budgets. They cover taxes and similar compulsory payments by legal entities and individuals, non-tax revenue (such as proceeds from sale of assets and privatization) and grants received from other levels of the general government and international organizations. Interbudgetary transfers between selected levels of the general government are excluded.
Tax is the compulsory payment of legal entities and individuals to the state budget and extra-budgetary funds of certain amount and on certain date specified by the legislation.
Tax on profit (income) (of enterprises and organizations). Taxation object is the gross profit (before taxes) of enterprises (the sum of the profit from sales of output (goods and services), fixed assets, other assets of an enterprise (organization) and earnings from transactions other than sales less outlays referring to these transactions).
Tax on income of persons. Taxation object for persons is the total income received in the calendar year. For taxation purposes the total income received both in cash (in national or foreign currency) and in kind is accounted. The amount of the total annual income subject to taxation is defined in accordance with the legislation.
Value added tax represents the part of the value added withdrawn to the state budget which is generated at all stages of production and is defined as the difference between the value of goods and services produced and the value of goods and services entirely consumed in the production process. Taxation objects are turnovers from sales of goods and services at the state territory.
Excises are indirect taxes included into the price of goods and payable by a purchaser. The state legislation establishes the order of excise taxation of the goods sold, such as alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, jewellery and some others.
Revenue from external economic activity is non-tax revenue from centralized exports and foreign revenue from external economic activity. Revenue from external economic activity includes revenue as follows: from state lending to foreign countries; from customs control and services; other revenue.
Revenue from privatizing public and municipal enterprises and organizations is earnings from sales of privatized objects and receipts during the process of privatization.
Revenue from sales of state bonds and other securities includes earnings from sales of state domestic bonds; state treasury obligations distributed between households; state short-term bonds; gold certificate; other receipts.
Budget expenditure (consolidated) refers to the sum of actual outlays of the general goverment bodies for general administration, defense, health care, education, development of market infrastructure and so forth. Also is included the lending (minus the repayment), provided by the government to other sectors of economy or to the rest of the world. The expenditure of the consolidated budget includes outlays of all respective levels of the general government – republican (federal), regional and local.
Expenditure on financing the economy includes expenditure on industries producing goods and services in accordance with the adopted in the country budgetary classification. The bulk of this expenditure is designed for financing capital investment in the public sector of the economy and subsidizing enterprises.
Expenditure on financing social and cultural measures includes expenditure on education, culture, medical services.
Expenditure on national defence represents purchases of armament and war technique, expenditure on current maintenance of arm forces and navy, financing the research and development, military construction, pensions to servicemen, etc.
Expenditure on general administration is designed for perfoming management and organizational functions by the government and is connected with the specific sphere of administrative activities.
Expenditure on maintenance of law bodies, courts and procurator’s offices is the expenditure on maintening the internal affairs bodies, state security bodies, courts and procurator’s offices.
Expenditure on external economic activity refers to state lending to foreign states, payments on state loans received from the foreign states, purchases of foreign currencies, etc.
Domestic state debt is the total of liabilities of the general government to residents of a country formed due to attraction of their funds on repayable and reimbursable basis for execution of various public programs.
External state debt is the total of liabilities of the general government to non-resident: international financial organizations, general government of other countries, foreign banks, etc.
- the price of the monetary unit
of the given national currency expressed in monetary units of the currency of
the other country. The exchange rates of national currencies of the CIS
countries against US dollar, single european currency (euro) and the rouble
Purchasing power parity of currency (PPP) - refers to the number of currency units required to buy goods equivalent to what can be bought with one unit of the currency of the comparable (base) country. PPP is determined by the method of chosen representative goods and services of one country in prices of another (base) country and consequent ratio of received values of sets of goods taking into account the structure of expenditure for GDP final use of comparable countries. For systematized PPP obtaining on single methodological basis UN and other organizations carry out periodically international comparisons on the majority of the countries of the world what allows on the basis of PPP to calculate GDP of various countries in common currency and carry out international comparisons of GDP and other macroeconomic indicators.
Deficit of the state budget refers to the excess of the total state budget expenditure over the total state budget revenue.
Proficit of the state budget is the excess of the budget revenue over its expenditure.
Balance sheet profit (loss) refers to the general financial results of activities of enterprises including profit from sale of output, from sale of assets as well as from non-commercial transactions (fines, penalties, interest and so forth), losses from extraordinary events such as fires, floods, losses due to cancellation of debts and so forth.
Balanced financial result (profit minus loss) is final financial result received on the basis of accounting of all economic operations of organizations. Represents the sum of profit (loss) from sale of commodities, products (works, services), fixed assets, other property of organizations and net income from nonoperating operations. Data on balanced financial result are given in historic prices.
Insurance premiums refer to the payments of an insurant due to an insurer (an insurance organization) for the insurance services in accordance with the insurance contract or legislation.
Insurance claims refer to the sums payable by an insurer to an insurant, a beneficiary or third parties when the insurance case occurs.
Insurance premiums and insurance claims are computed in accordance with the methodology of compiling book-keeping and statistical reports of insurance companies.
Earnings and outlays of insurance companies are the indicators of financial results of their performance and use of these results which are computed in accordance with the methodology of compiling book-keeping and statistical reports of insurance companies.
Monetary aggregates are measured by the indicators of volume and structure of money in circulation. Total money in circulation is characterized by indicators :
M0 = holdings of cash (outside of banking system),
M1 = M0 plus deposits by demand by households to saving banks, deposits by households and enterprises to other banks, the amounts of money on current and special accounts of enterprises and organizations,
M2 = M1 plus deposits to saving accounts of saving banks,
Credit investment in economy refers to the balance of indebtedness, including arrears, of legal persons and individuals to credit organizations on all credits (including credits extended for state authorities of all levels), foreign states, state extrabudgetary funds, non-residents, in currency of the state, foreign currency and precious metals.
Stocks of loans by banks refer to short-term and long-term loans as of the end of the period. Stock of loans at the end of the period is equal to the stock of loans at the beginning of the period plus the loans extended during the accounting period minus the loans repaid.
Short-term loans are extended by banks to enterprises and organizations to finance increase in their circulating assets.
Long-term loans are provided by banks to enterprises and organizations to finance the outlays on fixed capital formation and to households to finance construction of dwellings and related purposes.
Indices of producers’ prices of industrial output refer to changes of producers’ prices of industrial output. They are computed on the basis of the observation of changes of these prices by way of registration price of commodities-representatives. This observation is carried out with regard to the enterprises included in the sample survey.
Aggregated indices for branches of industries and industry as a whole are computed by using the data on the structure of industrial production in the preceding year as the weights.
Price indices for agricultural products sold by agricultural enterprises refer to changes of prices of sales of agricultural products by agricultural enterprises and organizations of major agricultural products through all channels of sales. The indices are computed on the basis of data on sales of agricultural products by agricultural enterprises broken down by channels of sales and types of products in accounting period and actual prices realised in accounting and basis periods. Prices of sales of agricultural products are shown taking into account surcharges and discounts for quality of sold products excluding expenditure for transportation, forwarding, shipment and unloading of products as well as value added tax and subsidies.
Consumer price index (CPI) shows change of value of the basket of consumer goods which includes all foodstuffs, non-food goods and services purchased by households over certain period of time. It represents a ratio of current value of the basket of consumer goods and services purchased by households in the base period to its value expressed in prices of the base period (as a rule, in prices of preceeding month or the year) and does not reflect the impact of changes in income, quantity and structure of consumption of population. The index is computed with the help of Laspeyres formula on the basis of individual indices of consumer prices and tariffs of goods and services included in the basket; these individual price indices are normally calculated on the basis of monthly registration of prices and tariffs of commodities-representatives. The structure of consumption expenditure in the base period is used for weighting individual price indices; this structure is established on the basis of the households budget surveys. The CPI can be calculated separately with respect to foodstuffs, non-food products and services.
Exports of goods refers to the value of goods taken out from the economic territory of the given country and as a result of which the material resources of the residents of the given country are reduced. The principle criterium of the registration of exports is the change of ownership, in practice in customs statistics the fact of crossing the borders of the countries is used as a criterium. Exports are valued in FOB prices (franko-port of the country-exporter) or in DAF prices (franko-border of the country-exporter). FOB prices (Free on Board – francobord of the ship of the country-exporter) including the cost of goods, all expenditures on transportation to the port of loading as well as all taxes and dues which should be paid for goods loading on board. Conversion of exports in US dollars is carried out with the help of exchange rates quoted by the central bank of the country as of the date of receiving customs cargo declaration.
Commodity nomenclature of external economic activities of the CIS countries is used for classifying exported goods (TNEEA CIS).
Imports of goods refers to the value of goods taken to the economic territory of the given country and as a result of which the material resources of the residents of the given country are increased. The major criterium of the registration of imports is the change of ownership, in practice in customs statistics the fact of crossing the borders of the countries is used as a criterium. Imports are valued in CIF prices (franko-port of the country-importer) or in CIP prices (franko-point of destination at the border of the country-importer). CIF prices (cost, insurance, freight) including the value of goods and expenses on insurance and transportation of goods to the port of the country-importer. Conversion of imports in US dollars is carried out with the help of exchange rates quoted by the central bank of the country as of the date of receiving customs cargo declaration.
Commodity nomenclature of external economic activities of the CIS countries is used for classifying imported goods (TNEEA CIS).
Balance of external trade is the difference between exports valued in fob prices and imports in cif prices.
Industrial structure of indicators (GDP, industrial production, investment in fixed capital) are shown in accordance with the national statistical classifications of kinds of economic activities as a rule based on Statistical Classification of Kinds of Economic Activities of the European Communities (NACE, rev. 1), beginning from the date of their introduction. However, some countries have not transfered yet to the national classifications and the above-mentioned indicators are shown in them in accordance with Classification of Branches of National Economy of the former USSR (CBNE), applied by the CIS countries in the transition to the market economy and differes significantly in contents from groupings of industries of the same name of CBNE.
Volume of industrial production in value terms refers to the total output of industrial enterprises of both industrial and non-industrial institutions and organizations.
Output of an industrial enterprise is considered to be the value of all finished goods produced for the accounting period and sale of semi-finished goods (both from own materials and materials of customers) as well as the value of industrial works performed by orders of various customers including non-industrial institutions of the enterprise. Excluded from the output is the value of goods of own production used for industrial needs within the enterprise.
The output is valued at current and constant prices.
Volume indices of industrial output are computed on the basis of valuation of output at constant prices. In some countries the computation of those indices is based on information on output of selected commodities-representatives in physical units with step-by-step aggregation of the individual indices in order to obtain index-numbers for subbranches and branches of industry, and then for industry as a whole. In some countries value added data are used for aggregation purposes.
Indices for long periods are computed with the help of chained indices method.
Industrial output in physical units refers to output of specific types of industrial products in physical units. The output, as a rule, is recorded including products used as input within the given enterprise.
Output of consumer goods refers to total output of consumer goods including output of foodstuffs, alcoholic beverages and non-food commodities in producers’ prices.
Volume indices of output of consumer goods are computed on the basis of information on the output in constant prices.
Agricultural production represents aggregate index of agricultural production and is determined as a sum of crops and animal production values produced in agricultural enterprises and organizations, households, private farms estimated at current prices of the registered year or at constant prices (prices of any year taken as basis one).
To compute volume indices of agricultural production index of it¢s value at constant prices is used.
Production of crops (at current or constant prices) includes value of gross harvest of agricultural crops and other production of crops produced in registered year as well as value, of young perennial plantations and changes in value of work - in - progress from the beginning to the end of the year.
Production of animal products (at current and constant prices) includes value of cattle, poultry and other animals breeding, production of milk, eggs, wool, honey and other animal products.
Total land space includes all agricultural land (arable land, perennial plants, meadows, pasture grounds, etc.) and non-agricultural land (forests, swamps, lands under the water, under constructions, streets, other lands not used in agriculture, etc.).
Sowing area under agricultural crops refers to the land under the crops by the end of sowing of spring crops, not excluding crops perished in summer, but excluding arears under the crops used or intended for forage for cattle and so forth. The sowing area includes winter sowing area made in the autumn of the preceding year less the area under the crops perished during the autumn-winter period, all spring sowing area of the current year including sowing over the areas of the perished crops as well as areas of permanent meadows sown during the preceding years.
Gross production of crops refers to the crops harvested from the lands under different agricultural crops, agricultural plantations and other agricultural lands within one agricultural holding or any territorial unit. Gross production of crops is determined both with respect of individual types of crops and groupings of crops: spring and winter rye, spring and winter wheat, spring and winter barley, spring and winter leguminous crops, vegetables, melons and gourdes and other types of crops. Gross production of most types of crops is shown in physical weight; production of grain, sunflower (for grain) is shown in the weight after processing, sugar beet (factory) – in registered weight.
Production of crops per unit of land characterises average production of crops per unit of land. The indicator is computed on average per one hectare of actually harvested land. Yield of fruit and berries is calculated for area under mature plants.
Number of livestock population includes livestock of all age groups of the corresponding kind of livestock. Number of poultry includes poultry of all kinds and ages (geese, hens, ducks, turkey-hens, etc.).
Sales of agricultural products by agricultural enterprises refer to sales of major agricultural products to procurement organizations, consumers cooperatives, at the free market, through barter, commodity exchange, auctions, sales to catering units as well as to goods provided to employees as wages in kind and other channels (in kind and in value terms).
Farms are the entities which on the basis of ownership by individuals, families or groups of individuals of land and other types of property (or lease of the land and other types of property) carry out production, processing and sale of agricultural products. The number of farms and the agricultural land space used by them are determined as of the moment of registration by local government bodies.
Investment in fixed capital refers to the aggregate of outlays directed to creation and reproduction of fixed assets (new construction, expansion as well as reconstruction and modernization of units, which result in increase of primary value of units and attribute to additional capital of organization), acquisition of machinery and equipment, transport facilities, main herd formation, perennial plantations and so forth.
Fixed assets put into operation refer to the value of completed by construction and put into operation buildings and structures, machinery, means of transportation of all types, equipment which requires and does not require installation; value of tools, implements and other objects allocated to fixed assets; value of perennial plantations (orchards, vineyards and so forth); value of oil and gas wells, as well as exploration wells which are intended to be put into operation; capital outlays on improvement of land and similar outlays associated with increase of value of fixed assets. Fixed assets put into operation are shown in current (actual) prices.
Productive capacities put into operation refer to capacities of newly constructed and completed enterprises as well as to increases in capacities obtained as a result of reconstruction and technical renovation of enterprises financed from all sources. The data refer to magnitudes shown in special acts of registration, as a rule, in physical units, for example, capacity for production of coal, steel are shown in thousand tons, capacity for production of shoes are shown in million pairs; in some cases data on capacities put into operation are shown in value terms. The workshops or similar sections of enterprises which are under construction in which production did not start yet are not included in this category.
Cargo transportation by transport enterprises refers to the volume of cargo in tons, transported by the enterprises engaged in cargo transportation.
Cargo turnover refers to the volume of work performed by transportation and measured in ton-kilometres. The indicator is computed as the sum of each shipment of cargo in tons multiplied by the relevant distance of transportation.
For all CIS countries cargo transportation by motor transport are shown taking into account volume of work performed by entrepreneurs – individuals; for Moldova (since 2007) and Kazakhstan (since 2002) – including cargo transportation by automobiles of non-transport enterprises , in Moldova by enterprises having on theis balance sheet or leasing 10 and over lorries.
Transportation of passengers refers to the number of passengers carried at the accounting period by all types of transport including trains, ships, planes, buses as well as subway, trams, trolleybuses, taxis.
The indicator is computed as the total number of passengers carried by all transport means both within the country and in international transportation irrespective of types of tariffs applied and including passengers who enjoyed the right of free travel.
Passenger turnover refers to the volume of work performed by transport in connection with transportation of passengers and is measured in passenger-kilometres.
For all CIS countries (except Moldova) transportation of passengers by bus transport are shown taking into account volume of work performed by private firms and commercial motor transport enterprises; for Kazakhstan (since 2002) – including transportation by passenger cars and buses of individuals; for Russia (since 2004) the system of transportation accounting of passengers enjoying the right of free travel.
Rolling stock of transportation by purpose refers to the number of transport means as of the end of the year irrespective of their technical condition and location (under repair, expecting repair, leased, under conservation and so forth).
Number of lorries (trucks) refers to the lorries of general use transport (which are equipped with the special open platforms both with and without boards) as well as the specialized lorries designed for hauling specified types of cargoes: dump trucks, refrigerators, cars carrying cement, timber, containers, pipes, and so forth. Special types of cars on the basis of lorries, such as tank-lorries and others, are not included in this category and are shown separately as specialized cars.
Mailed (number of outgoing mail) – letters, including postal cards and small parcels (ordinary and with indicated cost), periodicals (newspapers and magazines) delivered to subscribers and supplied to retail network of press dessimination.
Cables sent are accounted both as paid and service as well as money order and “trunk - call”. Included are all cables of which those transmitted by phone, teletype or through operation windows at the post – offices.
Number of provided trunk-line calls – included are outgoing trunkiline calls (domestic and international) when connecting subscribers manually, semiautomatically, automatically, paid and without payment (office). Number of calls from automatic phone sets is determined by counter indicators and for lack of counters – by recalculation of income amount into the number of calls by average tariff.
Number of phone sets (including taxphones) of telephone network of general use or having connection to it - includuded are phone sets connected to telephone exchanges of urban and rural telefone network of general use of the Ministries of Communication and telephone sets having connection to general use network connected with telephone exchanges belonging to other agencies and organizations. Of total number of telephone sets shown separately are domestic ones (installed in apartments, private homes).
Pager –receiver of the system of personal radio call.
Mobile communication – mobile system of radiotelephone communication. The principle of this system implies that the coverage of receiving exchanges having connection to Automatic Telephone Exchanges (ATE) covers the city (district) like beer’s honeycombs. The owner of mobile radiotelephone switches over automatically from one station to another while moving.
Internet - global imformation network (system of connected computer netwoks of the world computer networks) which makes easy provision of services on information exchange.
Electronic mail – high-speed transmission of information, prepared or processed in the input by computing engineering, by channels of electric communication with intermediate accumulation in “electronic mail boxes”.
Total retail turnover refers to sales of goods to households in current prices for final consumption and other types of uses in households. It is computed on the basis of the reports submitted by trading organizations and catering enterprises (all types of property and institutional arrangements) as well as by enterprises and organisations other than trade units (industrial, transport, etc.), including retail trade margin and taxes on goods (value added tax, excise tax, sales tax).
Retail turnover through all channels of sales also includes (on the basis of estimates of national statistical services) sales of goods by individuals (both on the territory of free markets, non-food, food and mixed markets and out of its limits).
For Armenia for 2005, for Moldova for 2004-2007 volume of turnover is given excluding catering enterprises turnover, but including repair and technical services of transport means being in use of citizens; for Armenia for 2006-2007 - excluding turnover of catering enterprises, sale of transport means to population and their technical services. In Ukraine in connection with continuous survey of the network of individuals, methodology of their accounting conducted in 2005 was changed.
Sales of market services to population refer to the payments received by enterprises from households (population) for services provided both in cash and non-cash forms including VAT, excises and similar types of taxes on products.
Included are the services rendered by enterprises (organizations) irrespective of the type of ownership and organizational subordination to households for satisfying their cultural, social, medical, judicial and other needs.
Total volume of market services through all channels of sales includes also volume of services rendered to population by non-corporative enterprises (belonging to households which produce services for their further sale on the market and individuals carrying out entrepreneurial activities not registered as legal entities (registerd and not registered).
Receipts from sales of forestry and construction materials sold to households at the places of their work are not included in the sale of services but included in retail trade turnover.
Sale of services is subdivided into the following groupings: everyday services (hairdresser’s, laundries, ritual ets.), passenger transportation services, communication services, housing and communal services, educational services, nurseries and similar preschool institutions services, tourist and sanatorium services, cultural services, medical services, physical culture and sport services, judicial services, services of banks, other services.
Volume indices of retail turnover and sales of market services to population (including everyday ones) are computed by comparing the value of turnover (of market services) for accounting and base periods in constant prices; volume indices for long period as of certain base (for example as of 2000) are computed with the help of chained method i. e. by multiplying annual indices.
Number of burses includes acting commodity burses, stock exchanges, burses of foreign currency, burses for transactions with real estate and other types of burses (except labour burses).
A burse is an enterprise which has a status of a legal entity participating in formation of the wholesale market of finished goods, raw materials, securities, foreign currency and other items by organizing and regulating trade in the form of open public trade transactions carried out according to the established rules.
Number of transactions concluded at burses - the number of documentally registered in accordance with the established rules contracts of sale-purchase between sellers and buyers.
Turnover of a burse refers to the overall value of transactions concluded during the accounting period; it is computed in prices existing at the moment of a transaction (excluding VAT) and refers to the total value of the items sold (commodities, securities, foreign currency, real estate objects and others).
De facto population - population made up of the persons staying in the given territory on census day, including temporary visitors.
In the period between censuses the present population current estimate is made on the basis of census data and taking into account the information of current demographic events registration.
Resident population - population made up of the persons habitually living in the given territory, including residents temporarily absent. In the period between censuses the resident population current estimate is made on the base of census data and taking into account the information of current demographic events registration.
Urban population - all residents of areas stated by legislative acts as cities (or towns), urban settlements, worker towns, resort and country settlements constitute the urban population.
Rural population - all residents of rural areas constitute the rural population. Settlements not classified as urban are considered to be rural.
Mid - year population is computed by averaging estimates as of the beginning and the end of a calendar year.
Average age of population – arithmetical mean of all its members’ ages.
Nationality – in the time of the census is registered according to the own application of the persons filling out the questionnaire, nationality of children - according to the parents’ application.
Natural increase of population - is the difference between the number of live births and the number of deaths during a certain period. It can have a positive sign if births exceed deaths or a negative sign if the opposite is true.
Natural increase rate is a difference between crude birth rate and crude death rate.
Crude birth rate is a rate measuring the frequency of childbearing in total population. It is calculated as the number of live births during the year divided by the mid-year population. It is frequently expressed as births per 1,000 population.
Crude death rate is a rate measuring the frequency of deaths in population. It is calculated as the number of deaths during the year divided by the mid-year population. It is frequently expressed as deaths per 1,000 population.
Distribution of deaths by causes of deaths – refers to the number of deaths distributed according to the list of causes of deaths with regard to the nomenclature of International Classification of Diseases, traumas and causes of deaths (Rev. - X). Death rates by selected causes are calculated per 100000 population.
Infant mortality rate is a rate measuring the frequency of infant deaths. It is computed as a ratio of the number of deaths under one year of age to the number of live births. So long as there can be the infants born in the previous calendar year among the infants died in the current calendar year, this ratio for a given year is often computed to the infants born in the current calendar year and to the infants born in the previous calendar year.
Net migration - is the difference between the number of persons officially arrived in a given area during a certain period and the total number of persons departing from it. Net migration can have a negative or a positive sign; the definition "net inmigration" is used when arrivals exceed departures, and "net outmigration" when the opposite is true. At the same time migration processes taken into account in calculation of the number of population differ from accounting data due to adjustments in connection with underestimates of migration flows available. In the last case migration outflow takes place.
Information on migration is derived as a result of elaboration of documents of statistical accounting of arriving and departure given by the bodies of home affairs which are compiled when population register at place of residence. The notions “arrived” and “depatured” characterize migration with somewhat conventionality because one and the same person can change the place of residence several times during a given year. The main part of migrants are persons who change the place of residence whithin the limits of their country.
Population growth - the increase or decrease of population in a period. The annual growth is the difference of population estimates as of the beginning and the end of a calendar year. The population growth consists of the natural increase (difference between the number of births and deaths) and net migration (difference between the number of inmigrants and outmigrants). If the excess of deaths over births or the number of outmigrants over inmigrants takes place then it can be population decrease instead of growth.
Economically active population includes the total number of employed and unemployed securing supply of labour force for production of goods and services.
Number of employed includes both employees (irrespective whether the job was permanent, temporal, seasonal, incidental, etc.) and self-employed persons in all sectors of economy. Thus, this category includes persons who are employed in public enterprises and organizations, in cooperatives of all types, in private enterprises and enterprises of mixed type of ownership, in private (peasant) farms and so forth, including those engaged in individual labour activities, in personal plots of households and employed by individuals (families) as domestic servants. This category includes both persons who actually work and those temporarily absent from the work due to different reasons (illness, vacations, etc.).
The data on employed population are given including inmigrants and foreign workers engaged in economy. According to preliminary data in 2007 the number of foreign citizens attracted for a work to the Commonwealth countries made up more that two million people. By estimate actual number of labour migrants (including illegal migrants) exceeds considevably official data of migration services and other agencies.
Employment rate - share of the number of employed population in total population of the corresponding age, calculated in percent.
Unemployed are the persons of certain age level adopted by the national legislation (as a rule 15-16 years of age) which in the given period did not have any job, were seeking the job with the help of official employment services or individually and were prepared to start working immediately or during the period specified in legislation. Unemployment rate is determined as the ratio of the number of unemployed to the number of economically active population.
Number of unemployed registered by employment offices This indicator shows the scale of official unemployment (the number of unemployed in accordance with the established rules and definitions). Registered unemployment rate is determined as the ratio of the number of unemployed registered at employment offices to the number of economically active population.
Number of unemployed receiving unemployment allowances. The unemployment allowances are granted to the persons aged 16 and over, registered by employment offices and who have a status of unemployed. The unemployed persons who are not illegible for unemployment allowances include the persons who did not accept suggested jobs, violated rules of registration, received allowances illegally and so on.
Number of persons who do not have employment and applied to employment offices. This category includes persons able to work who are seeking a job and applied to employment offices. This category includes both persons who received official status of unemployed and persons who did not receive this status yet.
Number of vacancies claimed by enterprises to employment offices is an indicator characterizing the demand for labour force.
Money income of population includes wages and salaries, bonuses, allowances for business trips and similar income paid by the enterprises to the employees, social benefits (such as pensions, allowances, stipends), proceeds from sale of products produced by households, receipts from the financial system and so forth. Included are cash and non-cash receipts.
Money expenditure of population includes expenditure on purchases by households of consumer goods and services, payments of taxes, other compulsory payments and fees, miscellaneous items.
Current saving of population (when it is computed on the basis of the balance of money income and expenditure of population) is computed as the difference between money income of population and money expenditure. It includes increase in deposits by households, purchases of bonds and other securities, purchases of foreign currency (less sales) and increase in holdings of cash owned by population.
Accumulated saving of population refers to a stock of financial assets, such as holdings of cash, deposits, securities, other than shares, shares and other types of financial assets, held by households as of certain date, usually as of the beginning and the end of the year.
Increase in holdings of cash owned by population refers to increase or decrease of the cash balance (except foreign currency).
Disposable money income of population are money income less compulsory payments and contributions.
Indices of real disposable money income of population – are measured as the ratio of index of money income of population less compulsory payments and contributions for the examined period of time to consumer price index for the same period of time (see page 669).
Average monthly nominal wage is determined by dividing the accrued wage fund by the number of employees on payroll on average for a period. When calculating average monthly wage per one employed person from the beginning of the year, for year figure received is devided by the number of months in the period.
The wage fund includes all types of earnings both in money and in kind for working hours as well as for the period of temporal absence from work (for example, annual leave), various bonuses, additional payments as well as occasional reimbursements and compensations assosiated with the special conditions of labour; also included are social oriented payments (such as value of free meals, cost of housing services, transportation to the place of job, etc.).
Real wage characterizes purchasing power of wage in accounting period due to change in prices for consumer goods and services as compared with basic perod.
Real wage index is calculated by dividing nominal wage index by consumer price index for one and the same time period.
Minimum amount of labour remuneration – minimum wage for all employees established by the state (confirmed by the corresponding decree of the President or resolution of the Government) for a certain period of time. Minimum amount of labour remuneration is revised periodically during the year due to increase of consumer price index. It is shown in national currency.
Number of pensioners by type of pensions refers to the number of persons who receive monthly certain amount of money specified in legislation on pension insurance (pension insurance is a form of material support used with respect to persons reached certain age or handicapped persons, survivors; it is financed from social security allowances accumulated by pension funds). This indicator includes pensioners who receive both labour pensions and social pensions. It also includes persons who receive military pensions.
Distinction is made between the following types of pensions:
Designated pensions refer to all labour and social pensions as well as to the pensions received by military personnel and their families;
Labour pensions include the pensions which are paid out to persons reached certain specified age, retirement pensions, survivors’ pensions. With respect to survivors’ pensions the observation unit in some CIS countries is a family and therefore in such cases total number of pensioners is adjusted by a number of members of households who are not able to work;
Social pensions refer to pensions paid to handicapped from the birth, invalids and aged persons if they are not illegible to labour pensions;
Pensions to military personnel and members of their families include pensions payable by social security organizations to the invalids who are enlisted military personnel or in case of their death to the members of their families.
Average monthly pension is computed as a ratio of total designated monthly pensions payable to all pensioners registered in social security organizations to the number of pensioners. Data on an average pension are shown in groupings by major types of pensions as of the beginning (in some cases as of the end) of the accounting period.
Minimum pension is minimum sum computed taking into account compensations in connection with the growth of consumer prices, the receiving of which is guaranteed to population by pension legislation.
Money income of households refers to all types of money income received by members of households: wages and salaries, income of self – employed persons (employers, own account workers, working members of production cooperatives and so forth), pensions, stipends, allowances, compensations and other additional payments (including gifts and grants), interest, dividends, rent and other propery income, receipts from sales of goods produced by personal plots of households and other money income. Money income can be common – before tax payment and other compulsory payments, and disposable – after executing of these payments.
When distributing population by the amount of average per capita money income the interval series is forming. It is used for computing coefficient of differentiation and determining the number of population being lower than the limit of powerty by the level of income (each country determines the low limit independently).
Fund coefficient is determined as the ratio of average per capita income (expenditure) computed for 10% of population with the highest income to 10% of population with the lowest income.
Distribution of the common fund of money income of household (disposable resources) by 20% groups of population shows unevenness of distribution of income between some groups of population. It is defined as money income percentage per every 20% group of population of total money income.
The structure of money income characterizes composition of money income by sources of income.
Purchasing power of population money income refers to quantity of goods (each separate) which could be possible to be purchased for the sum of average per capita disposable money income of surveyed households of average prices of purchase.
Expenditure on final consumption refers to expenditure of households on purchases of foodstuffs, non-food products and alcoholic beverages as well as on consumer services. Expenditures which are not included in the category “Expenditure on final consumption” refer to taxes, fees, other compulsory payments, payments of debts, alimonies, assistance to relevants, fines and other expenditures not related to final consumption; also not included in final consumption expenditure are the outlays associated with productive activities of households (purchases of seeds, fodder, raw materials, etc.).
The amount of minimum of subsistence refers to the value estimate of normative consumer`s basket as well as expenditure on taxes and compulsory payments. Normative consumer`s basket includes minimum set of foodstuffs which is required for man`s health preservation and maintaining its vital activity, non-food goods and services; it is elaborated for main socio-demographic groups of population and is adopted in accordance with the legislation. Value estimation of natural set by every group of goods is made by average prices of registration.
Dwellings put into operation (square meters of total living space) refer to completed by construction and put into operation in accordance with the established regulations of the following objects: permanent dwellings; hostels (including dormitories in general education schools); non-residential units which have apartments. Not included are premises in hotels, dwellings and hostels designed for non-residential purposes (shops, drugstores, hairdressers, etc.).
Total stock of dwellings is the total number of apartments and rooms including subsidiary premises which are located in dwellings as well as in other buildings which have premises used for living (apartments for doctors in hospitals, apartments for teachers in schools, etc.).
Total dwelling stock does not include summer houses, summer garden structures and similar premises designated for seasonal or temporal living irrespective of duration of living in them by households.
Total dwelling stock is subdivided into groups by major types of ownership:
Private - dwellings owned by citizens: individual dwelling houses, privatized, built and purshased apartments and houses, fully paid apatments in houses and housing - construction cooperatives, in houses of individual owners partnerships, houses and apartments owned by citizens according to other legal grounds; dwellings in ownership of legal persons (created as private owners), built or purshased on account of their means, including funds of housing -construction cooperatives with partial payment.
State - departmental dwelling stock in ownership of state being in full economic management of state enterprises or in operational management of state organizations refered to state property.
Municipal - dwelling stock in ownership of a region, town and their administrative and territorial formations as well as departamental stock being in full economic management of municipal enterprises or in operational management of municipal establishments.
Public - dwelling stock in ownership of public organizations.
Privatized apartments refer to apartments which are privatized by selling them or transfered into the ownership of citizens free of charge or with partial payment in the accounting year. These are apartments which are contracted for sale or transfered to households (the contract between households and respective institutional unit, such as an enterprise, organization, collective farm, adminstrative body, is supposed to be registered in local government agency).
Total dwelling space per person computed as the ratio of the total dwelling space of dwelling stock as of the end of the year to the number of resident population as of the same date. Total dwelling space includes living floor space and subsidiary quarters located within the limits of the apartment (kitchens, corridors, toilets, bathorooms (shower) etc.
Household (by census) - is a group of persons living together in housing unit who make common provision for food or other essentials for living. The persons in a group may pool their incomes and may, to greater or lesser extent, have a common budget; they may be related or unrelated persons or constitute a combination of persons both related and unrelated.
Number of education establishments includes general schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, secondary specialized education establishments and establishments of higher education.
General education schools refer to establishments which provide general training and facilitate multifacet cultural and physical development as well as esthetic education of children and youth. General schools carry out the educational process on the basis of single or several educational programmes. Depending on local conditions schools with various levels of education function: primary, secondary and incomplete secondary schools. Shools can be state, municipal and (private, of public and religious organizations).
Secondary specialized education establishments provide training and release specialists with secondary education. They include technical schools (colleges) - industrial, construction, transport, agricultural, general economic, librarian; special professional schools - medical, pedagogical, theatrical, musical, dancing, general culture educational and so forth.
Establishments of higher education include establishments which carry out training of specialists of high qualification. They include universities, training institutes, conservatories, training academies, high professional schools, etc.
Secondary specialized and higher education establishments are classified by type of training (day-time, evening, by correspondence) as well as by industrial grouping of educational units.
There can be state and municipal as well as private establishments of secondary and higher education. Receiving of higher and secondary professional education in state and municipal education establishments is performed on the basis of budgetary financing and by reimbursement of training costs by the students. In non-state education establishments the process of education is performed only on a reimbursement basis.
Number of students attending education establishments refers to the number of students attending general educational schools, secondary specialized education establishments as well as establishments of higher education; the students are registered as of the beginning of the academic year. Data on the number of students obtained from the special statistical reports are grouped by territory, types of education establishments, industrial specialization of education establishments, urban and rural areas (schools), grades (courses), sex, language of training and other.
The number of students admitted to education establishments refers to the number of persons admitted to education establishments in the given academic year. This category does not include the persons who for some reasons had to repeat the training course as well as the number of persons who previously interrupted their studies and then returned.
The number of persons graduated from education establishments refers to the number of persons who completed a training course in education establishments and received a profession. Graduates from full secondary general schools receive a certificate which enables them to enter establishments of higher education as well as secondary professional schools and similar secondary specialized education establishments with reduced duration of training. Persons graduated from secondary specialized education establishments and establishments of higher education receive diploma and qualification in accordance with specialization. Recently some higher education establishments graduate specialists with bachelor’s or master’s degree.
Personnel engaged in R&D – set of persons the creative work of whom is realized on systematic base and directed to the improvement of scientific knowledge and seeking new fields of this knowledge application as well as those engaged in rendering direct services connected with carrying out R&D. In statistics personnel engaged in R&D is accounted as payroll of employees of organizations (corresponding divisions of nigher education establishments, industrial enterprises and so forth) carrying out R&D as of the end of the year.
Trere are four categories in the composition of personnel engaged in R&D: researchers, technicians, supporting and other personnel.
Researchers are employees who are professionally engaged in R&D and realizing the creation of new knowledge, products methods and systems as well as management of above mentioned types of activities. Usually researches have higher professional education.
Technicians – are employees participating in the conduct of R&D implementing technical functions, as a rule, under the guidance of researchers.
Supporting personnel covers employees executing supplementary functions connected with the coduct of R&D: employees of planned-economic financial divisions, patent services, divisions of scientific and technical information, scientific and technical libraries; workers executing adjustment, installation, service and repair of scientific equipment and devices, workers of pilot (experimental) production, laboratory assistants having no higher and special secondary education.
Network of medical institutions includes hospitals, dispensaries, clinics and prophylactic institutions as well as polyclinics, ambulances, institutions for maternity and child care of all types of ownership.
The number of beds in hospitals and other medical institutions which are to be registered as of the end of the year refers to the beds properly equipped and ready to accept patients irrespective whether they are occupied or not. “Number of hospital beds per 10000 of population” is computed for characterizing availability of hospital beds on the basis of data on population as of the end of the year.
The number of polyclinics includes all medical institutions which provide ambulatory treatment (polyclinics, ambulatories, dispensaries, medical units of various institutions, ambulatory sections of hospitals and so forth).
Number of medical personnel includes doctors and paramedical staff of medical institutions of the Ministry of Health Care, other ministries and departments, organizations and enterprises of all types of ownership including private medical institutions which obtained the licence.
The total number of doctors includes the doctors with high medical education who are engaged as of the end of the year in hospitals, clinics and similar medical institutions, social security institutions, medical research institutitons as well as in institutions engaged in training of medical personnel and in the Ministry of Health Care and similar government agencies. This indicator also includes dentists with both high and secondary specialized education. This number refers to the number of individuals and not to the number of jobs. For characterizing the availability of medical care “Number of doctors per 10000 population” and “Number of population per one doctor” are computed on the basis of data on population as of the end of the year.
The total number of paramedical staff includes persons with medical secondary specialized education (other than dentists) engaged in hospitals, clinics and similar medical institutions, social security institutions, preschool children institutions, schools and so forth. The indicators characterizing the availability of the paramedical personnel are computed similar to that for doctors.
Number of registered patients diagnosed for the first time by selected diseases. The ratio of this number to mid-year resident population multiplied by 100000 is used as an indicator which shows the sick rate.
Data on the sick rate are grouped in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, Traumas and Causes of Deaths (Rev. X).
Number of persons suffered from work accidents resulting in the loss of ability to work and death refers to the number of persons suffered from industrial accidents at the territory of an enterprise as well as during travelling to the work or from the work by the transport provided by the enterprise.
Number of persons registered as invalids for the first time is one of the indicators characterizing the state of health of population. It shows number of persons with permanent or durable loss of ability to work resulted in chronical disease or injury, established by the corresponding medical bodies for the first time in the accounting year (primary disablement).
Emission of harmful pollutants in the air from stationary sources refers to total quantity of all pollutants emitted in the air by sources of pollution after the process of neutralization with the help of gas cleaning installations that did not result in complete neutralization and cleaning as well as without neutralization. Not included is air pollution resulting from soil erosion (dust storms), forest fires, etc.
Emission of pollutants is computed with respect to total volume of pollutants as well as by their types.
Total pollutants catched ( neutralized) from waste gases refer to actual quantity of air polluting emissions coming to air basin catched and/or neutralized by dust and gas purifying installations at the enterprises. They include substances which are used in technological processes as raw materials or semi-finished products initially envisaged by the projects of the given technology.
Use of water from natural sources refers to the volume of water resources obtained for consumption from surface water reservoires (rivers, lakes and seas) and from underground reservoires. It includes among other things water obtained in the process of extraction of mineral resources, water extracted in the process of construction, etc. Not included is the volume of water passed through hydro-electric stations, locks, structures designed for passing fish, maintening the necessary depth of water transportation ways, etc. Not included also is the volume of transit water directed to large channels, decentralised use of water extracted by population from wells including artesian ones, natural water reservoirs, etc.
Water consumption (use) - use of waters of all kinds (surface, underground, shaft, layer, sea waters etc.) withdrawn both from water intakes belonging to enterprise and communal water supply systems and other household systems. Consumption of reused water as well as reuse of waste and sewage water is excluded.
Losses of water during transportation include volume of water lost in evaporation, filtration, etc. during transportation between a point of intake and a point of use. Volume of water piped to other users is not included.
Number of registered crimes - total and classified by selected types of crimes refers to officially registered socially dangerous deeds identified in the criminal legislation.