Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

 

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)  was created in December 1991.

In the adopted Declaration the participants of the Commonwealth declared their interaction on the basis of sovereign equality.
At present the CIS unites: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan,  Uzbekistan and Ukraine.
In September 1993 the Heads of the CIS States signed an Agreement on the creation of Economic Union to form common economic space grounded on free movement of goods, services, labour force, capital; to elaborate coordinated monetary, tax, price, customs, external economic policy; to bring together methods of regulating economic activity and create favourable conditions for the development of direct production relations.

In order to facilitate further integration the Agreement on deepening of integration in economic and humanitarian field of four countries (Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia) and Agreement on creation of Commonwealth of Sovereign Republics (Belarus and Russia) were signed in 1995. 
In February 1999 by the decision of the Interstate Council of four countries (Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia) the Republic of  Tajikistan was recognized as participant of the customs union enjoying full rights.

Territory, Population, Brief Natural and Geographic Characteristics of the CIS
Territory
of the CIS - 22,1 mln. sq. km; Number of resident population in the CIS as 1.01.2017 - 284 mln. persons1); Density of population in the CIS - 13 persons by 1 sq. km.
 
Share in total number of population:
u
rban - 67%, rural - 33%;
males - 47%, females- 53%
The longest rivers
thous. km:

Lena  - 4,4 , Ob - 3,7 , Volga - 3,5 , Yenisei 3,5 - all rivers proceed on territory of Russian Federation.
The largest lakes:
Caspian Sea - 0,4 mln. sq. km (Azerbaijanian Republic, Republic of Armenia, Republic of Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Turkmenistan, Republic of Uzbekistan and other countries of the world).
Baikal
 - 31,5 thous. sq. km (Russian Federation)
Balkhash
 - 18,2 thous. sq. km (Republic of Kazakhstan)
Issyk-Kul - 6,2 thous. sq. km (Kyrgyz Republic)
Ladozhskoye 17,7 thous. sq. km (Russian Federation)
Onezhskoye - 9,7
thous. sq. km (Russian Federation)
The highest point, m
Somoni peak  - 7495 (Republic of Tajikistan)
Peak of Victory  - 7439 (Kyrgyz Republic)
Han-Tеngri peak (Han-Taniri) (range Saryzhaz) - 6995 (Republic of Kazakhstan)
mountain Elbrus  - 5642 (Russian Federation)
 
1) Estimate on Commonwealth, taking into account results of population censuses which took place in 2009-2010 in Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan.

    
     Mineral and raw materials potentialities of CIS countries include practically all kinds of minerals. Mining, use (processing) and exports of mineral resources is one of the main kinds of economic activities for many states of the Commonwealth.
     As a whole CIS countries take one of the first places in the world by volume of explored resources of gas, petroleum, coal, iron and manganese ores, many non-ferrous metals, potassium salts and other important kinds of minerals.
     The main place by mineral energy resources belongs to the Russian Federation. Its share in CIS makes up the greatest part of resources of coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and also practically all resources of oil-shales. Kazakhstan and Ukraine have considerable reserves of coal, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan - petroleum, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - natural gas. Not great reserves of petroleum are explored also in Belarus, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.
     In Kazakhstan there are practically all chrome ores, in Ukraine and Kazakhstan - manganese ore; in Russia the reserves of these minerals are rather small. More than a half of iron ore resources are located on the territory of Russia. Russia and Kazakhstan have the greatest resources of non-ferrous metal ores. In these states concentrated are almost all reserves of bauxites, lead, zinc, tin, tungsten, nickel, as well as the greatest part of copper and molybdenum resources. Armenia and Uzbekistan have also considerable resources of copper and molybdenum.
     The share of Russia makes up more than a quarter of total reserves of phosphorites of the CIS and more than a half of reserves of potassium salts being the main kinds of mineral and agrochemical raw  materials. Great resources of phosphorites are available also in Kazakhstan, potassium salts - in Belarus, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine. There are no agrochemical raw materials in Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and countries of Transcaucasia.
     As a whole CIS states take the second place in the world by volume of average annual river flow and have considerable potential operating reserves of underground waters and water resources of lakes, but these water resources are distributed unevenly along the territory of the states, which is explained by different climatic, geographic, geological and hydrological conditions of individual regions.
     Territories of deserts, semideserts and dry steppes of Central Asian states and Kazakhstan as well as Nizhnee Povolzhye of the Russian Federation are more dry. South of Ukraine (including steppe part of Crimea), considerable part of Moldova and some other regions in selected states have also insufficient water reserves.
     About 90% of average annual river flow falls on the Russian Federation. Total volume of water in lakes (including border lakes with countries not included in the CIS) makes over 100 trillion cubic metres. Moreover water resources in fresh lakes make up 25 trillion cubic metres, more than 90% of which falls on Lake Baikal.